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Berberine and other sustained-release nutrients provide more complete support for diabetes treatment, mini-review shows


  • Oxidative/nitrosative (O/N) stress is a causative factor in prediabetes and diabetes
  • Metformin and other standard drugs fail to address O/N stress
  • Key dietary supplements can help combat O/N stress and other metabolic challenges
  • In many cases, sustained-release delivery is preferred


This mini-review by Professor Knox Van Dyke, Ph.D., West Virginia University Medical School, outlines numerous therapies, including sustained-release dietary supplements, that have the potential to target the underlying oxidative and nitrosative (O/N) stress of prediabetes and diabetes.

Prediabetes and diabetes are characterized as chronic inflammatory diseases that result from excessive production of peroxynitrite (PN) and peroxynitrite carbonate (PC). An excess production of these powerful biological oxidants over time leads to O/N stress, which ultimately impairs mitochondrial function and glucose and fat metabolism, explains Dr. Van Dkye.

Standard diabetes drugs are limited to controlling carbohydrate or lipid metabolism and/or controlling insulin release or action. However, these drugs fail to address the underlying O/N stress of diabetes and thus are only partially effective.

Dr. Van Dkye suggests a more complete approach to the treatment of prediabetes and diabetes and has identified key vitamins, phytochemicals, fatty acids and specialty nutrients that provide benefits to help combat O/N stress and support mitochondrial function as well as help control carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (see list below). He notes that, in many cases, sustained-release delivery is preferred as it helps ensure optimal blood levels of the supplement that are maintained for longer periods of time.

Blood Glucose Control

  • Sustained-Release Berberine HCl
    (Recommended Intake: 600 mg taken twice daily)
    Like metformin, berberine is reported to activate AMP kinase and is reported to be as effective for lowering cholesterol and triglycerides without the drug’s known toxicity. People with type 2 diabetes may be able to use berberine instead of or in addition to metformin to control blood sugar levels. For people with type 1 diabetes, insulin should be used to control blood glucose levels.

Peroxynitrite Target

  • Sustained-Release Inosine
    (Recommended Intake: 3 g/day taken in split doses)
  • Sustained-Release Vitamin C
    (Recommended Intake: 4 g/day in split doses)
  • Sustained-Release Multivitamin (without iron)
    (Recommended Intake: twice daily in split doses)
  • Mixed Tocotrienols
    (Recommended Intake: not provided)
  • Krill Oil Omega 3 Fatty Acids
    (Recommended Intake: 1 capsule/day)
  • Flaxseed Oil Omega 3 Fatty Acids
    (Recommended Intake: 1 capsule/day)
  • Cannabidiol (CBD) from Hemp Oil
    (Recommended Intake: 100 mg, twice daily)
  • Curcumin / Black Pepper Blend
    (Recommended Intake: 1 capsule/day)

Precursor for Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD)

  • Sustained-Release Niacinamide
    (Recommended Intake: 1 g/day in split doses)
    (also clinical shown to slow type 1 diabetes in children)

Mitochondrial Support

  • PQQ Natural Quinone
    (Recommended Intake: 10 mg/day, twice daily)
    (stimulates mitochondrial production)
  • Coenzyme Q10
    (Recommended Intake: 100 mg/day)
    (essential for electron transport in mitochondria)

Other Support Factors

  • Vitamin D3
    (Recommended Intake: 3,000 IU/day)
  • Magnesium Chloride
    (Recommended Intake: 400 mg/day)
  • Calcium Carbonate
    (Recommended Intake: 1 g/day)
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
    (Recommended Intake: 50 mg/day)


Van Dyke K. A more complete treatment of prediabetes (metabolic syndrome) and diabetes 1 and 2 for humans: a mini review. Clin Res Immunol. 2018;1(2):1-3.


Sustained Release Dihydroberberine Info HERE